The technical meaning of an engine (referred as heat engine/combustion engine) is a process that converts chemical energy (the fuel) into heat energy and from heat energy to mechanical energy. Thus, power is generated. Engine is the core of a vehicle and it’s the component that has improved the most in the automotive industry. As a result, stronger and safer engines are being developed. The engine can be located both in front and back of the vehicle.
- The systems required for the engine to operate are the following:
- Engine Lubrication Systems
- Engine Fuel Systems
- Engine Coolant Systems
- Engine Air Systems
- Engine Electrical Systems
- Engine Exhaust Systems
Fuel Types and Specifications
Engines require fuel to run. Thus, many different sources of fuel are used for their operation. Currently, fuels are classified in two types. These are, non-renewable and renewable fuels. Renewable energy fuels are natural resources such as solar energy, hydrogen fuel cells. Non-renewable energy fuels are energy sources such as gasoline, diesel fuel and natural gases. Engines are produced as internal and external combustion types. Internal combustion engines operate based on the system that provides motion to the pistons thanks to the pressure generated by the combustion of fuels in a constrained combustion chamber. On the other hand, with the external combustion engines, the heat energy obtained from the combustion of the heat source is not converted to mechanical energy in the same chamber. However, this type of engine is not used in modern vehicles. the best example for this engine type would be steam locomotives used in 19 and 20th centuries.
Engines are produced in 4 different types. Among these are inline engines. They have the cylinders lined up in a certain order on the crankshaft and they are the most commonly used engine type in automobiles. Other engine types include boxer, V-type and W-type.